The specific gravity test is a measurement used in various scientific and engineering applications to determine the density or relative density of a substance compared to the density of a reference material, usually water at a standard temperature. It is commonly used in fields such as chemistry, physics, geology, and engineering. The specific gravity (SG) of a substance is calculated as the ratio of its density to the density of water.

The formula for specific gravity (SG) is given by:

{**Specific Gravity (SG**)= **Density of Substance/Density of Water at Standard Temperature**]

The standard temperature for water is typically 4 degrees Celsius (39.2 degrees Fahrenheit) because water is densest at this temperature.

Here’s a step-by-step guide on how the specific gravity test is often conducted:

**Weigh the Sample:** Measure the mass of the substance using a balance or scale.
**Determine the Volume:** Measure the volume of the substance. The volume can be determined using various methods, such as using a graduated cylinder or a displacement method.
**Calculate Density:** Calculate the density of the substance using the formula **Density} =** **Mass/Volume**
**Compare with Water:** Divide the density of the substance by the density of water at the standard temperature to get the specific gravity.

Specific gravity is a dimensionless quantity because it is a ratio of densities. It provides valuable information about the composition or purity of a substance. For example, if the specific gravity of a material is less than 1, it means the substance will float in water since its density is less than that of water. If the specific gravity is greater than 1, the substance will sink.

In laboratories, specialized instruments like hydrometers or density meters may be used to measure specific gravity accurately. Additionally, various industries, such as the petroleum industry, use specific gravity measurements to characterize and classify liquids.

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