# DPMO : Defects Per Million Opportunities method

DPMO stands for Defects Per Million Opportunities, and it is a key metric used in the Six Sigma methodology. Six Sigma is a set of techniques and tools for process improvement that seeks to improve the quality of process outputs by identifying and removing the causes of defects and variability. DPMO is a measure of process performance, indicating the number of defects or errors in a process per one million opportunities.

The calculation for DPMO involves the following steps:

1. Define the Opportunities:
Identify all the potential opportunities for defects in a process. An opportunity is a chance for a defect to occur. For example, if you are measuring the defects in a manufacturing process, an opportunity could be a unit of product, and the defects could be deviations from the desired specifications.
2. Count the Defects:
Collect data on the number of defects that occur in the process. A defect is any non-conformance to the customer’s requirements or specifications.
3. Calculate Defects Per Opportunity:
Divide the total number of defects by the total number of opportunities. This gives you the defects per opportunity.
4. Convert to DPMO:
Multiply the defects per opportunity by one million to get the Defects Per Million Opportunities. The formula is:
[ DPMO = left\fracDefects\Opportunities \right) \times 1,000,000 ]

DPMO is a useful metric because it allows organizations to compare the performance of different processes regardless of their scale. The goal in Six Sigma is to achieve a DPMO level that corresponds to a high level of process capability, typically reaching a Six Sigma level where the process produces less than 3.4 defects per million opportunities.

Improving processes to achieve lower DPMO values is a central objective of Six Sigma practitioners, and it involves using various statistical and problem-solving tools to identify and eliminate the root causes of defects in a systematic way.